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Institutional Subscription. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Explores the processing and handling technologies in the production of food powders Examines powder properties, including surface composition, shelf life, and techniques used to examine particle size Focusses on speciality powders such as dairy, infant formulas, powdered egg, fruit and vegetable, and culinary and speciality products.
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Packaging Requirements for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables | NC State Extension Publications
What is a Verified Buyer. A Verified Buyer is a user who has purchased the reviewed product through our store. Land areas that were formerly considered marginal or unproductive have been put under cultivation in order to meet the demands of a growing population. As the non-agricultural sectors do not offer sufficient employment opportunities for the increasing population in the rural areas, the pressure on the land is growing, leading to further fragmentation.
The transformation of the social and economic situation of the farming population described above has been the result of numerous interrelated factors, both external and internal to the agricultural sector. In this process, the means of production and agrarian structure are interlinked, and their changes influence each other mutually. In addition, development processes in the farming sector are not independent anymore; they are part and parcel of the overall economy and, therefore, are subject to changes in the other sectors.
When assessing the contribution of food science and technology on changes in the rural areas, we have to take into consideration that they constitute only one element in this process. Other factors, such as policy measures in the field of prices, taxes, trade, and land tenure, have a much more direct impact and may enhance or reduce the potential role of food science and technology.
Hawthorn described the situation as follows:. If food supply and distribution were simply a matter of science and technology, our task would be easy because it is not difficult to demonstrate that the biological resource of our planet can support a human population greater than our present. Unfortunately, economic and cultural factors often dominate and sometimes swamp the sweet reason of our scientific disciplines. On such factors our influence can only be indirect. Technological developments in all spheres of agricultural production, processing, and marketing have largely abolished the economic independence of the individual farm-holding.
It has become dependent on and part of a steady inflow of inputs and services into production and of a continuous outflow of semi-finished products which are taken over by processing factories, grading and packing stations, or supermarkets. These developments have affected the institutional set-up in the rural areas. In order to meet the challenges of the technical innovations and to obtain economies of scale, agricultural producers in Western Europe have gradually changed their patterns of purchase, production, and marketing.
In the past farmers relied heavily on their traditional village co-operatives. But technical and economic developments now call for larger primary banks, integration into a regional or national banking system, Iarger dairies, and modern, centrally located enterprises for processing, transformation, and marketing. The advantages of closeness to the members and of cooperative democracy are thus automatically diminished.
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While cooperatives were originally established to help the small farmers, now their economically calculating managers consider small producers to be less desirable members, because their involvement means higher costs per unit of delivered inputs and collected output. Thus, "modern" cooperatives wish to select their members according to economic capacity. In many primary credit co-operatives, farmers have become a minority, who badly need the nonagricultural majority, but who cannot determine credit policies anymore.
New forms of co-operation have been developed, such as "banks" or co-operatives for joint utilization of expensive farm machinery; these co-operatives are very common in the Federal Republic of Germany, France, and Austria, and are somewhat common in the Netherlands and Norway.
Both traditional and modern arrangements for joint pasture of cows and calves are widespread in Norway and Switzerland. Cooperative cowsheds in large number have been established in Norway.
Full merger of farms and the formation of larger production units has become quite common in France in the form of the "groupements agricoles d'exploitation en commun. Besides new co-operative forms serving several farms in specific areas of production, various types of private contractors and service enterprises have come up offering many field operations and services ranging from ploughing to harvesting, drying, and transportation. Some basic products, e.
However, vertical integration has recently been extended to cover other products, such as fruits, peas, carrots, and other vegetables. Co-operation between agricultural producers and processors in the form of contract farming has also found its place in the production and processing of broilers.
In some Northern and Western European countries agricultural producers have joined forces and established or acquired factories for the processing of their crops. The producers have become involved in food distribution and thus derive additional income from such activities. While some old institutions like co-operatives have lost or changed functions, the new organizational forms seem to be better adapted to the new situation and to meeting the emerging needs.
Many of the new problems cannot be solved in the framework of the average individual holding; they rather demand co-ordination of the decisions and operations of several or many holdings, be it for the utilization of large-scale machinery or assistance in field operations and marketing.
ISBN 13: 9780824701055
More and more, the decisions regarding marketing go back to the production stage and call for co-ordination or even subordination of the individual opinion or desire under the common interest. This transformation in management has also affected other established rural institutions, such as agricultural administration, extension services, and farm institutes, which are losing their clients. The political and professional organizations in rural areas face the same fate. Their membership dwindles and loses its social homogeneity.
Another typical phenomenon of the recent changes in social conditions is the reduction of the agricultural labour force. This decrease has fed to an age structure of the farm population that is less favourable than that of other sectors. Older people prefer to remain in their profession and place of residence, while a growing share of the younger generation is leaving farming for good. Thus, in Western Europe, an increasing number of holdings have no successor, which again influences all activities and leads to less investment and more extensive cultivation, particularly of small holdings.
The decrease of the agricultural population has also affected the sex composition in the rural areas. Due to the exodus of male workers from the villages, the share of female workers has become higher than in most other sectors in several countries. The easy availability of convenience food for the working farm woman has facilitated this trend. The introduction of new techniques and practices in food production has eliminated a considerable part of the traditional work of a farmer and thus contributed to a steady increase of part-time farming.
In central and north-western Europe this type of activity covers already more than 50 per cent of all holdings. Countries in Eastern Europe, except Poland and Yugoslavia, have experienced a drastic transformation in their agrarian and social structure that is implied in collectivization. By far the greatest part of the farm land is cultivated by collective or state farms. Thus the tenurial barriers to the utilization of modern technology have been removed. These structural changes have been the result of political decisions of the respective socialist governments.
They cannot, therefore, be directly attributed to the contribution of food science and technology. One may argue, however, that the political reason for collectivization was at least partly the intention to make full use of science and technology and to overcome the disadvantages of small family farms. Food science and technology have also influenced the social conditions in developing countries.
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The most striking innovation of the last ten years has been the introduction of the Green Revolution, a package of agricultural practices combined with the use of high-yielding varieties of rice and maize. It has resulted in a large increase in the production of these crops. Several countries that were net importers of food grain have become self-sufficient, and some are even exporting food grains. These new varieties have short maturation periods, natural resistance to certain pests, and yield nearly four times as much grain as traditional varieties. However, they require fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in order to grow.
Additionally, the seeds are expensive. The adoption of Green Revolution technology has reverberated forcefully throughout the entire fabric of rural societies. Its welcome effect on production increases has been accompanied by negative social consequences. It has generally benefited rich farmers more than the poor, and income disparities have grown worse. Green Revolution methods have tended to displace labour and have increased rural unemployment, even though in theory the methods should be labour-intensive because the high-yielding varieties require more care and attention in ground preparation, planting, and harvesting.
When the cultivation of a second crop is possible, the need for labour is doubled, but, because of its labour intensity, the Green Revolution also provided incentives for larger farmers to mechanize their farm operations and thus dispose of manual labour. Iverson, C.
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