The pilot must resume position reports after ATC advises that radar contact has been lost, or that radar services are terminated. A clearance always specifies a clearance limit , which is the farthest the aircraft can fly without a new clearance. In addition, a clearance typically provides a heading or route to follow, altitude, and communication parameters, such as frequencies and transponder codes.
In uncontrolled airspace, ATC clearances are unavailable.
Aviation abbreviations and acronyms
In some states a form of separation is provided to certain aircraft in uncontrolled airspace as far as is practical often known under ICAO as an advisory service in class G airspace , but separation is not mandated nor widely provided. Despite the protection offered by flight in controlled airspace under IFR, the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the aircraft rests with the pilot in command, who can refuse clearances. While current and forecast weather may be a factor in deciding which type of flight plan to file, weather conditions themselves do not affect one's filed flight plan.
For example, an IFR flight that encounters visual meteorological conditions VMC en route does not automatically change to a VFR flight, and the flight must still follow all IFR procedures regardless of weather conditions.
To operate safely in IMC "actual instrument conditions" , a pilot controls the aircraft relying on flight instruments and ATC provides separation. Anytime a flight is operating in VMC and in a volume of airspace in which VFR traffic can operate, the crew is responsible for seeing and avoiding VFR traffic; however, because the flight is conducted under Instrument Flight Rules, ATC still provides separation services from other IFR traffic, and can in many cases also advise the crew of the location of VFR traffic near the flight path.
Continued VFR flight into IMC can lead to spatial disorientation of the pilot which is the cause of a significant number of general aviation crashes. Also possible in many countries is "Special VFR" flight, where an aircraft is explicitly granted permission to operate VFR within the controlled airspace of an airport in conditions technically less than VMC; the pilot asserts they have the necessary visibility to fly despite the weather, must stay in contact with ATC, and cannot leave controlled airspace while still below VMC minimums.
During flight under IFR, there are no visibility requirements, so flying through clouds or other conditions where there is zero visibility outside the aircraft is legal and safe. However, there are still minimum weather conditions that must be present in order for the aircraft to take off or to land; these vary according to the kind of operation, the type of navigation aids available, the location and height of terrain and obstructions in the vicinity of the airport, equipment on the aircraft, and the qualifications of the crew.
For example, Reno-Tahoe International Airport KRNO in a mountainous region has significantly different instrument approaches for aircraft landing on the same runway surface, but from opposite directions. Aircraft approaching from the north must make visual contact with the airport at a higher altitude than when approaching from the south because of rapidly rising terrain south of the airport. In general, each specific instrument approach specifies the minimum weather conditions to permit landing.
Although large airliners, and increasingly, smaller aircraft, carry their own terrain awareness and warning system TAWS ,  these are primarily backup systems providing a last layer of defense if a sequence of errors or omissions causes a dangerous situation.
Because IFR flights often take place without visual reference to the ground, a means of navigation other than looking outside the window is required. Air traffic control may assist in navigation by assigning pilots specific headings "radar vectors". The majority of IFR navigation is given by ground- and satellite-based systems, while radar vectors are usually reserved by ATC for sequencing aircraft for a busy approach or transitioning aircraft from takeoff to cruise, among other things. Modern flight management systems have evolved to allow a crew to plan a flight as to route and altitude and to specific time of arrival at specific locations.
Specific procedures allow IFR aircraft to transition safely through every stage of flight. These procedures specify how an IFR pilot should respond, even in the event of a complete radio failure, and loss of communications with ATC, including the expected aircraft course and altitude. The departure clearance may contain an assigned heading, one or more waypoints, and an initial altitude to fly.
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The clearance can also specify a departure procedure DP or standard instrument departure SID that should be followed unless "NO DP" is specified in the notes section of the filed flight plan. En route flight is described by IFR charts showing navigation aids, fixes, and standard routes called airways. Aircraft with appropriate navigational equipment such as GPS, are also often cleared for a direct-to routing, where only the destination, or a few navigational waypoints are used to describe the route that the flight will follow.
ATC will assign altitudes in its initial clearance or amendments thereto, and navigational charts indicate minimum safe altitudes for airways. The approach portion of an IFR flight may begin with a standard terminal arrival route STAR , describing common routes to fly to arrive at an initial approach fix IAF from which an instrument approach commences.
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An instrument approach terminates either by the pilot acquiring sufficient visual reference to proceed to the runway, or with a missed approach because the required visual reference is not seen in time. To fly under IFR, a pilot must have an instrument rating and must be current meet recency of experience requirements.
In the United States, to file and fly under IFR, a pilot must be instrument-rated and, within the preceding six months, have flown six instrument approaches , as well as holding procedures and course interception and tracking with navaids. Flight under IFR beyond six months after meeting these requirements is not permitted; however, currency may be reestablished within the next six months by completing the requirements above.
It focuses on the establishment of intelligent products and smart production processes as well as on vertically and horizontally integrated manufacturing systems [ 4 ].
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Smart products are distinctively distinguishable, may be situated at any moment in time, and record past and current information or status as well as alternative ways to attain their target. Smart production processes [ 5 ] are intelligent production processes in which the various steps in the lifecycle are integrated with each other, starting with the design phase and ending with the retirement phase.
The four stages of the industrial revolution are illustrated in Figure 1. The concept is renamed locally according to the different initiatives going on in various geographical areas and industry branches. A few of them are: Internet of Things IoT [ 6 ] refers to the world in which all everyday objects and devices are completely interconnected for seamless interoperability;. Industrial Internet of Things IIoT [ 7 ] is what you get when applying the concepts of IoT to an industrial setting, for example, in production;. Factory of the Future is a large research initiative supported by the EU, in which new technologies such as IoT should be applied to factories;.
Industrial Digitalization is a term used in Sweden, which stresses the impact and potentials of digitalization in both manufacturing and process industries. The difference between these initiatives does not lie in the goals, but rather in the selection of enabling technical solutions e.
As far as aviation is concerned, the main applications of the Industry 4. Barbosa [ 9 ] provided a contextual outline of how robotics, additive manufacturing, augmented reality, IoT and simulation are currently applied at the aeronautics manufacturing industry. He illustrated some novelties in the aerospace industry related to Industry 4. At the same time, some authors have pointed out the impact of Industry 4. Big data analytics can provide precise data for operational control, and IoT might improve equipment safety through a better maintenance [ 11 , 12 , 13 ].
However, the potential of Industry 4. This chapter discusses how the upcoming Aviation 4. It analyzes, from an evolutionary perspective, the stages of aviation development, from basic VFR flight rules at the Aviation 1. It also illustrates case studies of the application of the Aviation 4. Just as we can establish four stages in the industrial revolution, we can establish four stages in the evolution of commercial aviation. These four stages are closely related to the adoption of higher levels of automation on board aircraft; and controversially, they do not correspond to a deliberate attempt of improving aviation safety in a steady way, but rather to a continuous adaptation to the challenges imposed by its environment following a trial-and-response approach.
The four stages in commercial aviation revolution, from Aviation 1. The four stages in commercial aviation revolution: From aviation 1.
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The first evolutionary stage, Aviation 1. This era was dominated by the technological challenges posed by how to build and fly an aircraft. Mechanic inventions were progressively incorporated to flight controls in parallel with electric basic instruments to help pilots.
The second stage, Aviation 2. Technological advances were driven by two important challenges imposed by the continuous and steady growth of aviation, with a higher number of aircraft operating in the same environment, under all weather conditions: i how to fly an aircraft under adverse meteorological conditions? New instruments such as the VOR very high-frequency omnidirectional range and ILS instrument landing system allows the pilots to follow safely tracks and approach paths. On board innovations, such as electric autopilots, auto-throttle, flight directors, airborne weather radars, navigation instruments, inertial platforms, and so on, resulted in high safety enhancements.
This evolution comes with a rise of information to be managed by the pilot, who might be confronted with more than devices and indicators to be monitored and controlled in the cockpit. Aviation 3. At the beginning of this revolution, electronics significantly helped to diminish the clutter of instruments and replace the old indicators with integrated colored displays, cathode ray tube CRT and liquid crystal display LCD , capable of providing a synthetic and analytic view of multiple parameters in a limited area of the cockpit.
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Technological solutions were progressively designed to support the operators pilots and controllers informed decisions, with the help of aggregated, visualized, understandable information. Operations onboard and outside of the aircraft shifted from tactical to strategic, and assistance systems and safety nets became crucial elements to increase the level of safety in commercial aviation. Modern advanced aerospace systems will be characterized by a tight combination between onboard cyber systems e. Therefore, Aviation 4. Cyber-physical systems will make the Aviation 4.
The amount and diversity of operational data that can be collected onboard of the aircraft and by ground operations will raise exponentially. In Aviation 4. Airplane operations relay on a grand scale on the employment of CPS. Future Air Traffic Management systems are conceived as a cyber-physical system-of-systems CPSS that demand tight amalgamation to provide the required capacity, efficiency, safety and security system performance. The great technological parallel developments in data analytics will support active reaction to these enhanced aircraft operations.
To illustrate the diversity and the volume of data that the total deployment of aviation will imply 4. While an Airbus A transmits about 15, parameters per flight, the figure is , for the A and , for the A It seems, therefore, that the data generated by the aerospace industry alone could soon surpass the magnitude of the consumer Internet. This revolution is not exempted of defies. Challenges related to information assurance and cyber security include the certification of cyber security requirements for e-Enabled airplanes; the development of anti-tamper avionics hardware and software and the collaboration of industry and governments to address the cyber threat to aviation.
There are also very important technological challenges for airplane operations, which are as follows: worldwide aeronautical networks interoperability, including signal processing and wireless performance as well as the aircraft interfaces to the Internet;. Unexplored concepts and approaches to safety start to being discovered by companies and researchers in an attempt to approach safety from different perspectives with the new tools that Aviation 4. In the following sections, we revise up to six case studies that illustrate the application of Aviation 4. Automatic flying in predefined situations in a rule-based way.
The investigation identified the deficiencies in the air traffic control service and the error of one of the crew to follow the indications of the onboard aircraft collision avoidance system traffic collision avoidance system—TCAS in the origin of the accident.
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The TCAS was able to effectively anticipate the collision and generate proper and correct alarms to alert the crews and generate evasion trajectories to be followed by each crew. TCAS resolution maneuvers were correctly generated. One minute before the aircraft hit the ground, the system that alerts of dangerous proximity of the aircraft to the terrain enhanced ground proximity warning system—EGPWS generated correct and proper warnings indicating to the pilot to ascend to avoid collision with the ground.
Both cases would have been avoided if the warnings have been automatically followed when the crew was not taking appropriate action in due time. Other recent occurrences raise the question about the capabilities of Aviation 4. Could an Aviation 4. In a more general approach, could an Aviation 4. Aviation 4. Predefinition of situations, where automatic autonomous flying to be activated and to be deactivated after the situation has improved. Many puzzle stones needed are already available and in operational use, and developments and experiences from other domains can be taken on board.
Missing links are topics for a future research agenda; however, no unsolvable issues identified so far. But it was only a temporary fix, and after about 10 seconds, the automatic system kicked back in.
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